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Table 2 Prehospital and inhospital management (*only data from standard documentation forms were used since the QM documentation form does not include relevant parameters); GCS = Glasgow Coma Scale, ED = emergency department, RISC = Revised Injury Severity Classification, SMR = standardised mortality rate, m = mean, SD = standard deviation, PRBC = packed red blood cells, CI = confidence interval

From: Penetrating injuries in Germany – epidemiology, management and outcome an analysis based on the TraumaRegister DGU®

  Gunshot
n = 1123
Stab
n = 4333
Others
n = 4119
Prehospital data       
Prehospital GCS score (m +/-) 9.7 SD 5.4 13.4 SD 3.3 12.6 SD 4
Prehospital shock (n) 177 20.7 % 863 24.3 % 572 16.7 %
On-scene time (m +/-)* in minutes 29.5 SD 17.7 21.3 SD 13.9 28.4 SD 16.7
Prehospital time (m +/-) in minutes 67.6 SD 44.2 58 SD 46.2 64.1 SD 35.6
Air transportation (n) 203 20.6 % 227 5.7 % 893 23.7 %
Prehospital management       
Prehospital fluid administration (n) 827 87.2 % 3415 87.4 % 3319 89.5 %
Prehospital fluid administration in mL (m +/-) 875 SD 681 856 SD 695 919 SD 729
Prehospital intubation (n) 521 51.9 % 715 17.7 % 1177 30.7 %
Prehospital chest drain insertion (n)* 28 5.0 % 96 5.4 % 53 3.0 %
Prehospital catecholamine therapy (n)* 107 19.1 % 159 9.0 % 183 10.5 %
Resuscitation (n) 72 7.2 % 181 4.5 % 135 3.5 %
Prehospital sedation (n)* 387 69.2 % 876 49.4 % 1235 70.6 %
Clinical management       
Shock on arrival at ED (n) 182 17.8 % 684 17.1 % 493 13.4 %
Fluid administration at ED in mL (m +/-)* 1286 SD 1632 1460 SD 1602 1318 SD 1473
PRBC transfusions (n) 188 17.1 % 834 19.4 % 664 16.3 %
Massive transfusions (> 10 PRBC units, n) 31 2.8 % 139 3.2 % 115 2.8 %
Emergency operations (since 2015) 184 46 % 916 48 % 484 43 %
Emergency laparotomy 68 18 % 568 31 % 59 6 %
Emergency thoracotomy 33 9 % 240 13 % 30 3 %
Length of hospital stay (in days) 11.8 SD 16.3 9 SD 10.7 18.5 SD 22.5
Died within 6 h 156 13.9 % 158 3.6 % 177 4.3 %
Died (n) 429 38.2 % 289 6.7 % 455 11.0 %
RISC II score (%)   35.7 %   8.6 %   13.2 %
SMR (with 95 % CI) 1.07 0.99–1.15 0.78 0.69–0.86 0.84 0.76–0.91