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  1. Survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is dependent on early recognition, early cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and early defibrillation. The purpose of CPR is to maintain some blood flow unt...

    Authors: Ingvild B. M. Tjelmeland, Jan Wnent, Siobhan Masterson, Jo Kramer-Johansen and Jan-Thorsten Gräsner

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:82

    Content type: Study protocol

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  2. Thoracic trauma is commonplace and accounts for 50–70% of the injuries found in severe trauma. Little information is available in the literature as to timing of endotracheal intubation. The main objective of t...

    Authors: Adrien Cornillon, Juliette Balbo, Julien Coffinet, Thierry Floch, Mathieu Bard, Guillaume Giordano-Orsini, Jean-Marc Malinovsky, Lukshe Kanagaratnam, Daphne Michelet and Vincent Legros

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:81

    Content type: Original research

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  3. The management of penetrating wounds is a rare challenge for trauma surgeons in Germany and Central Europe as a result of the low incidence of this type of trauma. In Germany, penetrating injuries are reported...

    Authors: D Bieler, E Kollig, L Hackenberg, JH Rathjen, R Lefering and A Franke

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:80

    Content type: Original research

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  4. Mechanical chest compression devices are accepted alternatives for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) under specific circumstances. Current devices lack prospective and comparative data on their specific card...

    Authors: Robert Ruemmler, Jakob Stein, Bastian Duenges, Miriam Renz and Erik Kristoffer Hartmann

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:79

    Content type: Original research

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  5. During the COVID-19 pandemic, as the number of available Intensive Care beds in France did not meet the needs, it appeared necessary to transfer a large number of patients from the most affected areas to the l...

    Authors: Thierry Lentz, Charles Groizard, Abel Colomes, Anna Ozguler, Michel Baer and Thomas Loeb

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:78

    Content type: Original research

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  6. The Nordic countries have differed in their approach as to how much priority for COVID19 vaccine access should be given to health care workers. Two countries decided not to give health care workers highest pri...

    Authors: Bjorg Thorsteinsdottir and Bo Enemark Madsen

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:77

    Content type: Commentary

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  7. Bystander-initiated resuscitation is essential for surviving out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Smartphone apps can provide real-time guidance for medical laypersons in these situations. Are these apps a benefici...

    Authors: Camilla Metelmann, Bibiana Metelmann, Louisa Schuffert, Klaus Hahnenkamp, Marcus Vollmer and Peter Brinkrolf

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:76

    Content type: Original research

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  8. The biomarker serum S100 calcium-binding protein B (S100B) is used in in-hospital triage of adults with mild traumatic brain injury to rule out intracranial lesions. The biomarker glial fibrillary acidic prote...

    Authors: Sophie-Charlott Seidenfaden, Julie Linding Kjerulff, Niels Juul, Hans Kirkegaard, Mette Fogh Møller, Anna-Marie Bloch Münster and Morten Thingemann Bøtker

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:75

    Content type: Original research

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  9. When working in complex environments with critically ill patients, team performance is influenced by situation awareness in teams. Moreover, improved situation awareness in the teams will probably improve team...

    Authors: Karin Jonsson, Christine Brulin, Maria Härgestam, Marie Lindkvist and Magnus Hultin

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:73

    Content type: Original research

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  10. There have been major developments in healthcare services as well as changes in demographics in recent years, and this has, among other things, led to increased demand for ambulance services. In general, this ...

    Authors: Sveinbjörn Dúason, Christoffer Ericsson, Hrafnhildur Lilja Jónsdóttir, Jeanette Viggen Andersen and Thomas Lynge Andersen

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:72

    Content type: Commentary

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  11. A threshold Injury Severity Score (ISS) ≥ 16 is common in classifying major trauma (MT), although the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) has been extensively revised over time. The aim of this study was to determi...

    Authors: Jan C. Van Ditshuizen, Charlie A. Sewalt, Cameron S. Palmer, Esther M. M. Van Lieshout, Michiel H. J. Verhofstad and Dennis Den Hartog

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:71

    Content type: Original research

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  12. Dispatcher-assisted cardiopulmonary resuscitation (DA-CPR) increases neurologically intact survival in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) according to several studies. This systematic review summarizes neur...

    Authors: Kristine Elisabeth Eberhard, Gitte Linderoth, Mads Christian Tofte Gregers, Freddy Lippert and Fredrik Folke

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:70

    Content type: Review

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  13. Assessing and managing the risk of clinical deterioration is a cornerstone of emergency care, commencing at triage and continuing throughout the emergency department (ED) care. The aim of this scoping review w...

    Authors: Julie Considine, Margaret Fry, Kate Curtis and Ramon Z. Shaban

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:69

    Content type: Review

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  14. Coagulopathy in adult patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) is strongly associated with unfavorable outcomes. However, few reports focus on pediatric TBI-associated coagulopathy.

    Authors: Cheng-yan You, Si-wei Lu, Yue-qiang Fu and Feng Xu

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:67

    Content type: Original research

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  15. Trauma is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide with about 5.8 million deaths globally and the leading cause of death in those aged 45 and younger. The pre-hospital phase of traumatic injury is ...

    Authors: Matilda K. Björklund, Moira Cruickshank, Robbie A. Lendrum and Katie Gillies

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:65

    Content type: Review

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  16. Rapid Sequence Induction (RSI) was introduced to minimise the risk of aspiration of gastric contents during emergency tracheal intubation. It consisted of induction with the use of thiopentone and suxamethoniu...

    Authors: Pascale Avery, Sarah Morton, James Raitt, Hans Morten Lossius and David Lockey

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:64

    Content type: Review

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  17. Retrospective trauma scores are often used to categorise trauma, however, they have little utility in the prehospital or hyper-acute setting and do not define major trauma to non-specialists. This study employ...

    Authors: Lee Thompson, Michael Hill, Fiona Lecky and Gary Shaw

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:63

    Content type: Original research

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  18. Helicopter Emergency Medical Services (HEMS) respond to serious trauma and medical emergencies. Geographical disparity and the regionalisation of trauma systems can complicate accurate HEMS dispatch. We sought...

    Authors: J. E. Griggs, J. W. Barrett, E. ter Avest, R. de Coverly, M. Nelson, J. Williams and R. M. Lyon

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:62

    Content type: Original research

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  19. Hypotension is associated with worse outcome in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and maintaining a systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥110 mmHg is recommended. The aim of this study was to assess the inci...

    Authors: Simon Rauch, Matilde Marzolo, Tomas Dal Cappello, Mathias Ströhle, Peter Mair, Urs Pietsch, Hermann Brugger and Giacomo Strapazzon

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:61

    Content type: Original research

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  20. Point-of-care ultrasound is a focus oriented tool for differentiating among cardiopulmonary diseases. Its value in the hands of emergency physicians, with various ultrasound experience, remains uncertain. We t...

    Authors: M. Riishede, A. T. Lassen, G. Baatrup, P. I. Pietersen, N. Jacobsen, K. N. Jeschke and C. B. Laursen

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:60

    Content type: Original research

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  21. Emergency medical service patients are a vulnerable population and the risk of mortality is considerable. In Denmark, healthcare professionals receive 112-emergency calls and assess the main reason for calling...

    Authors: Stine Ibsen, Tim Alex Lindskou, Christian H. Nickel, Torben Kløjgård, Erika Frischknecht Christensen and Morten Breinholt Søvsø

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:59

    Content type: Original research

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  22. A 3 month old boy, with no known health conditions, suffered a sudden collapse at home. On first EMS arrival, ventricular fibrillation (VF) cardiac arrest was identified and resuscitation following UK national...

    Authors: Peter Kingsley, Jonathan Merefield, Robert G. Walker, Fred W. Chapman and Mark Faulkner

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:58

    Content type: Case report

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  23. Colloid fluids supplemented with adequate combinations of coagulation factor concentrates with the capability to restore coagulation could be a desirable future treatment component in massive transfusion.

    Authors: Tobias Koller, Nadia Kinast, Andres Guilarte Castellanos, Sergio Perez Garcia, Pilar Paniagua Iglesias, Xavi León Vintro, Jose Mateo Arranz, Noelia Vilalta Seto, Ma. Victòria Moral García, Ana Belén Moreno-Castaño, Jose Aznar-Salatti, Gines Escolar Albaladejo and Maribel Diaz-Ricart

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:57

    Content type: Original research

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  24. Falls from standing are common in the elderly and are associated with a significant risk of bleeding. We have compared the proportional incidence of bleeding complications in patients on either direct oral ant...

    Authors: Martin Müller, Ioannis Chanias, Michael Nagler, Aristomenis K. Exadaktylos and Thomas C. Sauter

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:56

    Content type: Original research

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  25. During periods such as the COVID-19 crisis, there is a need for responsive public health surveillance indicators in order to monitor both the epidemic growth and potential public health consequences of prevent...

    Authors: Cédric Gil-Jardiné, Gabrielle Chenais, Catherine Pradeau, Eric Tentillier, Philippe Revel, Xavier Combes, Michel Galinski, Eric Tellier and Emmanuel Lagarde

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:55

    Content type: Original research

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  26. The burden of frailty on older people is identifiable by its adverse effect on mortality, morbidity and long term functional and health outcomes. In patients suffering from a traumatic injury there is increasi...

    Authors: Heather Jarman, Robert Crouch, Mark Baxter, Chao Wang, George Peck, Dhanupriya Sivapathasuntharam, Cara Jennings and Elaine Cole

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:54

    Content type: Original research

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  27. Traditional, instructor led, in-person training of CPR skills has become more challenging due to COVID-19 pandemic. We compared the learning outcomes of standard in-person CPR training (ST) with alternative me...

    Authors: Daniyal Mansoor Ali, Butool Hisam, Natasha Shaukat, Noor Baig, Marcus Eng Hock Ong, Jonathan L. Epstein, Eric Goralnick, Paul D. Kivela, Bryan McNally and Junaid Razzak

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:53

    Content type: Review

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  28. Teamwork is essential in healthcare, but team performance tends to deteriorate in stressful situations. Further development of training and education for healthcare teams requires a more complete understanding...

    Authors: Femke S. Dijkstra, Peter G. Renden, Martijn Meeter, Linda J. Schoonmade, Ralf Krage, Hans van Schuppen and Anne de la Croix

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:52

    Content type: Review

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  29. Emerging evidence suggests that the reallocation of health care resources during the COVID-19 pandemic negatively impacts health care system. This study describes the epidemiology and the outcome of major trau...

    Authors: Jean-Denis Moyer, Arthur James, Clément Gakuba, Mathieu Boutonnet, Emeline Angles, Emmanuel Rozenberg, Jean Bardon, Thomas Clavier, Vincent Legros, Marie Werner, Quentin Mathais, Véronique Ramonda, Pierre Le Minh, Yann Berthelot, Clélia Colas, Julien Pottecher…

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:51

    Content type: Original research

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  30. A primary task of the Norwegian helicopter emergency medical services (HEMS) is to provide advanced medical care to the critical ill and injured outside of hospitals. Where HEMS bases are located, directly inf...

    Authors: Caroline J. Jagtenberg, Maaike A. J. Vollebergh, Oddvar Uleberg and Jo Røislien

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:50

    Content type: Original research

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  31. Tracheal intubation remains the gold standard of airway management in emergency medicine and maximizing safety, intubation success, and especially first-pass intubation success (FPS) in these situations is imp...

    Authors: Jürgen Knapp, Bettina Eberle, Michael Bernhard, Lorenz Theiler, Urs Pietsch and Roland Albrecht

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:49

    Content type: Original research

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  32. Chloroquine use has increased worldwide recently in the setting of experimental treatment for the novel coronavirus disease (Covid-19). Nevertheless, in case of chloroquine intoxication, it can be life threate...

    Authors: Thomas Ferry, Vivianne Amiet, Julia Natterer, Marie-Hélène Perez, Raymond Pfister, Sébastien Colombier and David Longchamp

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:48

    Content type: Case report

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  33. The incidence of cerebral fat embolism (CFE) ranges from 0.9–11%, with a mean mortality rate of around 10%. Although no univocal explanation has been identified for the resulting fat embolism syndrome (FES), t...

    Authors: Luigi Vetrugno, Elena Bignami, Cristian Deana, Flavio Bassi, Maria Vargas, Maria Orsaria, Daniele Bagatto, Cristina Intermite, Francesco Meroi, Francesco Saglietti, Marco Sartori, Daniele Orso, Massimo Robiony and Tiziana Bove

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:47

    Content type: Review

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  34. Spinal stabilisation is recommended for prehospital trauma treatment. In Germany, vacuum mattresses are traditionally used for spinal stabilisation, whereas in anglo-american countries, long spine boards are p...

    Authors: Roessler MS, M Riffelmann, N Kunze-Szikszay, M Lier, O Schmid, H Haus, S Schneider and Heuer JF

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:46

    Content type: Original research

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  35. Medical dispatching is a highly complex procedure and has an impact upon patient outcome. It includes call-taking and triage, prioritization of resources and the provision of guidance and instructions to calle...

    Authors: Thea Palsgaard Møller, Hejdi Gamst Jensen, Søren Viereck, Freddy Lippert and Doris Østergaaard

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:45

    Content type: Original research

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  36. This study is aimed to investigate the association of intraosseous (IO) versus intravenous (IV) route during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) with outcomes after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA).

    Authors: Yu-Lin Hsieh, Meng-Che Wu, Jon Wolfshohl, James d’Etienne, Chien-Hua Huang, Tsung-Chien Lu, Edward Pei-Chuan Huang, Eric H. Chou, Chih-Hung Wang and Wen-Jone Chen

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:44

    Content type: Original research

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  37. Falls in older Emergency Department (ED) patients may indicate underlying frailty. Geriatric follow-up might help improve outcomes in addition to managing the direct cause and consequence of the fall. We aimed...

    Authors: Laura C. Blomaard, Simon P. Mooijaart, Leonie J. van Meer, Julia Leander, Jacinta A. Lucke, Jelle de Gelder, Sander Anten, Jacobijn Gussekloo and Bas de Groot

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:43

    Content type: Original research

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  38. Tissue oxygenation index (TOI) using the near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has been demonstrated as a useful indicator to predict return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) among out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (...

    Authors: Jumpei Tsukuda, Shigeki Fujitani, Mahbubur Rahman, Kenichiro Morisawa, Takeshi Kawaguchi and Yasuhiko Taira

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:42

    Content type: Original research

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  39. During the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak in the Netherlands, the demand for intensive care beds exceeded availability within days. Initially, patients were redistributed regionally by ground tra...

    Authors: Ed J. Spoelder, Marijn C. T. Tacken, Geert-Jan van Geffen and Cor Slagt

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:41

    Content type: Original research

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  40. In a prehospital setting, the severity of respiratory symptoms in patients calling for an ambulance differ. The initial evaluation, diagnosing, and thereby management can be challenging because respiratory sym...

    Authors: Pia Iben Pietersen, Søren Mikkelsen, Annmarie T. Lassen, Simon Helmerik, Gitte Jørgensen, Giti Nadim, Helle Marie Christensen, Daniel Wittrock and Christian B. Laursen

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:40

    Content type: Original research

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  41. The effect of mechanical CPR is diversely described in the literature. Different mechanical CPR devices are available. The corpuls cpr is a new generation of piston-driven devices and was launched in 2015. The...

    Authors: S. Seewald, S. Dopfer, J. Wnent, B. Jakisch, M. Heller, R. Lefering and JT Gräsner

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:39

    Content type: Study protocol

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  42. Aggressive fluid management and other external factors may lead to hypothermia, acidosis and hemodilution (defined as Lethal Triad, LT) contributing to a trauma-induced coagulopathy (TIC) that worsens patients...

    Authors: Julia K. Böhm, Nadine Schäfer, Marc Maegele, Birgit Stümpges, Ursula Bauerfeind and Michael Caspers

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:38

    Content type: Original research

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  43. Transthoracic echocardiographic (TTE) indices of myocardial function among survivors of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) have been related to neurological outcome; however, results are inconsistent. We hy...

    Authors: Thomas Hvid Jensen, Peter Juhl-Olsen, Bent Roni Ranghøj Nielsen, Johan Heiberg, Christophe Henri Valdemar Duez, Anni Nørgaard Jeppesen, Christian Alcaraz Frederiksen, Hans Kirkegaard and Anders Morten Grejs

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:37

    Content type: Original research

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  44. Pain is one of the major symptoms complained about by patients in the prehospital setting, especially in the case of trauma. When there is mountainous topography, as in Switzerland, there may be a time delay b...

    Authors: Urs Pietsch, Yoël Berger, David Schurter, Lorenz Theiler, Volker Wenzel, Lorenz Meuli, Andreas Grünenfelder and Roland Albrecht

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:36

    Content type: Original research

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  45. ABGs are performed in acute conditions as the reference method for assessing the acid-base status of blood. Hyperventilation and breath-holding are common ventilatory changes that occur around the time of samp...

    Authors: Lisha Shastri, Søren Kjærgaard, Peter S. Thyrrestrup, Stephen E. Rees and Lars P. Thomsen

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:35

    Content type: Original research

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  46. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Peter Hilbert-Carius, Manuel F. Struck, Veronika Hofer, Jochen Hinkelbein, Leif Rognås, Jörn Adler, Michael D. Christian, Thomas Wurmb, Michael Bernhard and Björn Hossfeld

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:34

    Content type: Correction

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    The original article was published in Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2020 28:112

  47. Early pre-hospital identification of critically ill patients reduces morbidity and mortality. To identify critically ill non-traumatic and non-cardiac arrest patients, a pre-hospital risk stratification tool w...

    Authors: Lars I. Veldhuis, Markus W. Hollmann, Fabian O. Kooij and Milan L. Ridderikhof

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:32

    Content type: Original research

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