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  1. The Team Emergency Assessment Measure (TEAM) questionnaire is designed for rating the non-technical performance of emergency medical teams during emergencies, e.g., resuscitation or trauma management. Original...

    Authors: Klas Karlgren, Anders Dahlström, Anderz Birkestam, Annelie Drevstam Norling, Gustav Forss, Mikael Andersson Franko, Simon Cooper, Thomas Leijon and Charlotta Paulsson

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:139

    Content type: Original research

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  2. Evidenced-based guidelines on when to cease resuscitation for pulseless electrical activity are limited and support for paramedics typically defaults to the senior clinician. Senior clinicians include paramedi...

    Authors: Ali Coppola, Sarah Black and Ruth Endacott

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:138

    Content type: Original research

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  3. Penetrating injuries to the neck pose a unique challenge to clinicians due to the proximity of multiple significant anatomical structures with little protective soft tissue coverage. Injuries to this area, whi...

    Authors: Christopher Simpson, Harriet Tucker and Anthony Hudson

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:137

    Content type: Review

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  4. Rapid Sequence Induction (RSI) is used for emergency tracheal intubation to minimise the risk of pulmonary aspiration of stomach contents. Ketamine and propofol are two commonly used induction agents for RSI i...

    Authors: Niklas Breindahl, Josefine Baekgaard, Rasmus Ejlersgaard Christensen, Alice Herrlin Jensen, Andreas Creutzburg, Jacob Steinmetz and Lars S. Rasmussen

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:136

    Content type: Original research

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  5. During the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, the French Government imposed various containment strategies, such as severe lockdown (SL) or moderate lockdown (ML). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of both st...

    Authors: Jean-Denis Moyer, Paer-Selim Abback, Sophie Hamada, Thibault Martinez, Marie Werner and Arthur James

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:135

    Content type: Commentary

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  6. Previous studies have demonstrated an association between hyperoxia and increased mortality in various patient groups. Critically unwell and injured patients are routinely given high concentration oxygen in th...

    Authors: P. Leitch, A. L. Hudson, J. E. Griggs, R. Stolmeijer, R. M. Lyon and E. ter Avest

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:134

    Content type: Original research

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  7. With an aging population, the number of elderly individuals exposed to traumatic injuries is increasing. The elderly age criterion for traumatic injuries has been inconsistent in the literature. This study aim...

    Authors: Ji Hwan Lee, Min Joung Kim, Ju Young Hong, Jinwoo Myung, Yun Ho Roh and Sung Phil Chung

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:133

    Content type: Original research

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  8. There is evidence supporting the use of beta-blockade in patients with traumatic brain injury. The reduction in sympathetic drive is thought to underlie the relationship between beta-blockade and increased sur...

    Authors: Lin Sadi, Gabriel Sjölin and Rebecka Ahl Hulme

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:132

    Content type: Original research

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  9. Witnessing an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is a traumatic experience. This study analyses bystanders` psychological processing of OHCA. We examined the potential impact of bystanders performing resusc...

    Authors: Peter Brinkrolf, Bibiana Metelmann, Camilla Metelmann, Mina Baumgarten, Carolin Scharte, Alexander Zarbock, Klaus Hahnenkamp and Andreas Bohn

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:131

    Content type: Original research

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  10. The coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic has caused major healthcare challenges worldwide resulting in an exponential increase in the need for hospital- and intensive care support for COVID-19 patients. As a result...

    Authors: Nadia A. G. Hakkenbrak, Sverre A. I. Loggers, Eva Lubbers, Jarik de Geus, Stefan F. van Wonderen, Eva Berkeveld, Sarah Mikdad, Georgios F. Giannakopoulos, Kees J. Ponsen and Frank W. Bloemers

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:130

    Content type: Original research

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  11. The aim of this manikin study was to evaluate the quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) with restricted patient access during simulated avalanche rescue using over-the-head and straddle position as co...

    Authors: Bernd Wallner, Luca Moroder, Hannah Salchner, Peter Mair, Stefanie Wallner, Gabriel Putzer, Giacomo Strapazzon, Markus Falk and Hermann Brugger

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:129

    Content type: Original research

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  12. Metabolic and electrolyte imbalances are some of the reversible causes of cardiac arrest and can be diagnosed even in the pre-hospital setting with a mobile analyser for point-of-care testing (POCT).

    Authors: Tobias Gruebl, B. Ploeger, E. Wranze-Bielefeld, M. Mueller, W. Schmidbauer, C. Kill and S. Betz

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:128

    Content type: Original research

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  13. Pre-hospital identification of major trauma in elderly patients is key for delivery of optimal care, however triage of this group is challenging. Elderly-specific triage criteria may be valuable. This systemat...

    Authors: Adam J. Boulton, Donna Peel, Usama Rahman and Elaine Cole

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:127

    Content type: Review

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  14. Unused ('idle') peripheral intravenous catheters (PIVC) are those not used within 24 hours of insertion. There is little data on cannulation practices and idle PIVC rates in emergency settings, especially the pre...

    Authors: Hugo Evison, Amy Sweeny, Jamie Ranse, Mercedes Carrington, Nicole Marsh, Joshua Byrnes, Claire M. Rickard, Peter J. Carr and Gerben Keijzers

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:126

    Content type: Original research

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  15. The use of psychoactive prescription drugs is associated with increased risk of traumatic injury, and has negative impact on clinical outcome in trauma patients. Previous studies have focused on specific drugs...

    Authors: Henrik Andreas Torp, Svetlana Skurtveit, Nils Oddvar Skaga, Ingebjørg Gustavsen, Jon Michael Gran and Leiv Arne Rosseland

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:125

    Content type: Original research

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  16. The extent to which Point-of-care of ultrasound (POCUS) is used in different European helicopter EMS (HEMS) is unknown. We aimed to study the availability, perception, and future aspects of POCUS in the Europe...

    Authors: Peter Hilbert-Carius, Manuel F. Struck, Marcus Rudolph, Jürgen Knapp, Leif Rognås, Jörn Adler, Cor Slagt, Lars Jacobsen, Henryk Pich, Michael D. Christian, Didier Dandrifosse and Fikri M. Abu-Zidan

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:124

    Content type: Original research

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  17. The scientific evidence regarding the risk of delayed intracranial bleeding (DB) after mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) in patients administered an antiplatelet agent (APA) is scant and incomplete. In additi...

    Authors: Giorgio Colombo, Mattia Bonzi, Elisa Fiorelli, Alessandro Jachetti, Viviana Bozzano, Giovanni Casazza, Monica Solbiati and Giorgio Costantino

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:123

    Content type: Review

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  18. Self-reported health and life satisfaction are considered important outcomes in people surviving cardiac arrest. However, most previous studies have reported limited aspects on health, often based on composite...

    Authors: Patrik Hellström, Kristofer Årestedt and Johan Israelsson

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:122

    Content type: Original research

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  19. Physical trauma is associated with mortality, long-term pain and morbidity. Effective pain management is fundamental in trauma care and opioids are indispensable for treating acute pain; however, the use and m...

    Authors: Jeanette Finstad, Olav Røise, Leiv Arne Rosseland, Thomas Clausen and Ingrid Amalia Havnes

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:121

    Content type: Original research

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  20. An incident command structure is commonly used to manage responses to major incidents. In the hospital incident command structure, the medical officer in charge (MOC) is in a key position. The decision-making ...

    Authors: Karin Hugelius, Monica Rådestad, H. Al-Dhahir and L. Kurland

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:120

    Content type: Original research

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  21. There is no global consensus on the use of prehospital triage system in mass casualty incidents. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the most commonly used pre-existing prehospital triage systems for the...

    Authors: Amir Khorram-Manesh, Johan Nordling, Eric Carlström, Krzysztof Goniewicz, Roberto Faccincani and Frederick M. Burkle

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:119

    Content type: Original research

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  22. A spontaneous subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) is one of the most critical neurological emergencies a dispatcher can face in an emergency telephone call. No study has yet investigated which symptoms are presente...

    Authors: Asger Sonne, Sarita Egholm, Laurits Elgaard, Niklas Breindahl, Alice Herrlin Jensen, Vagn Eskesen, Freddy Lippert, Frans Boch Waldorff, Nicolai Lohse and Lars Simon Rasmussen

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:118

    Content type: Original research

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  23. This study aimed to compare and validate the out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA); cardiac arrest hospital prognosis (CAHP); non-shockable rhythm, unwitnessed arrest, long no-flow or long low-flow period, blo...

    Authors: Takumi Tsuchida, Kota Ono, Kunihiko Maekawa, Takeshi Wada, Kenichi Katabami, Tomonao Yoshida and Mineji Hayakawa

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:117

    Content type: Original research

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  24. Emergency Medical Services (EMS) are faced daily with patients presenting with non-specific chief complaints (NSC). Patients presenting with NSCs often have normal vital signs. It has previously been establish...

    Authors: Robert Ivic, Jouni Nurmi, Lisa Kurland, Veronica Vicente, Veronica Lindström, Therese Djärv, Johanna Kaartinen, Maaret Castrén and Katarina Bohm

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:116

    Content type: Original research

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  25. Incidence of in-hospital cardiac arrest is reported to be 0.8 to 4.6 per 1,000 patient admissions. Patient survival to hospital discharge with favourable functional and neurological status is around 21–30%. Th...

    Authors: Alexander Fuchs, Dominic Käser, Lorenz Theiler, Robert Greif, Jürgen Knapp and Joana Berger-Estilita

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:115

    Content type: Original research

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  26. People exposed to electrical injuries are often admitted to hospital for observation. Current evidence suggests that patients who have a normal ECG on admission after a low-voltage injury, with no loss of cons...

    Authors: Jamal Ahmed, Charlotte Stenkula, Sherwan Omar, Josef Ghanima, Fredrik Førsund Bremtun, Jonas Bergan, Nezar Raouf and Waleed Ghanima

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:114

    Content type: Original research

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  27. Prehospital care for patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) varies with some emergency medical systems recommending direct transport of patients with moderate to severe TBI to hospitals with specialist neu...

    Authors: Charlie Aletta Sewalt, Benjamin Yaël Gravesteijn, David Menon, Hester Floor Lingsma, Andrew I. R. Maas, Nino Stocchetti, Esmee Venema and Fiona E. Lecky

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:113

    Content type: Original research

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  28. Although the merit of pre-hospital critical care teams such as Helicopter Emergency Medical Services (HEMS) has been universally recognized for patients with penetrating torso injuries who present with unstabl...

    Authors: M. Gavrilovski, J. E. Griggs, E. ter Avest and R. M. Lyon

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:112

    Content type: Original research

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  29. The COVID-19 pandemic limited hospital resources and necessitated interhospital transport of ICU-patients in order to provide critical care to all patients in the Netherlands. However, not all hospitals have a...

    Authors: Geert-Jan van Geffen, Ed J. Spoelder, Amanda Tijben and Cornelis Slagt

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:111

    Content type: Commentary

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  30. Citizen responder programmes dispatch volunteer citizens to initiate resuscitation in nearby out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCA) before the Emergency Medical Services (EMS) arrival. Little is known about th...

    Authors: Anne-Sofie Linde Jellestad, Fredrik Folke, Rune Molin, Rasmus Meyer Lyngby, Carolina Malta Hansen and Linn Andelius

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:110

    Content type: Original research

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  31. Authors: Iscander M. Maissan, Boris Vlottes, Sanne Hoeks, Jan Bosch, Robert Jan Stolker and Dennis den Hartog

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:109

    Content type: Correction

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    The original article was published in Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:87

  32. Motor vehicle collisions account for 1.3 million deaths and 50 million serious injuries worldwide each year. However, the majority of people involved in such incidents are uninjured or have injuries which do n...

    Authors: Tim Nutbeam, Rob Fenwick, Barbara May, Willem Stassen, Jason E. Smith, Lee Wallis, Mike Dayson and James Shippen

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:108

    Content type: Original research

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  33. Calls to emergency medical lines are an essential component in the chain of survival. Operators make critical decisions based on information they elicit from callers. Although smooth cooperation is necessary, ...

    Authors: Jennifer Gerwing, Jon Erik Steen-Hansen, Trond Mjaaland, Bård Fossli Jensen, Olav Eielsen, Owen Matthew Truscott Thomas and Pål Gulbrandsen

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:107

    Content type: Original research

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  34. There exists a therapeutic conflict between haemorrhage control and prevention of thromboembolic events following polytrauma and complications are not uncommon. Such opposing therapies can result in unexpected...

    Authors: Mathew Brun, Shane Brun, David Pearson and Martin Wullschleger

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:106

    Content type: Case report

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  35. Organ donation after brain death is the standard practice in many countries. Rates are low globally. This study explores the potential national number of candidates for uncontrolled donations after cardiac dea...

    Authors: Andrew Fu Wah Ho, Timothy Xin Zhong Tan, Ejaz Latiff, Nur Shahidah, Yih Yng Ng, Benjamin Sieu-Hon Leong, Shir Lynn Lim, Pin Pin Pek, Han Nee Gan, Desmond Renhao Mao, Michael Yih Chong Chia, Si Oon Cheah, Lai Peng Tham and Marcus Eng Hock Ong

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:105

    Content type: Original research

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  36. In the ‘can’t intubate can’t oxygenate’ scenario, techniques to achieve front of neck access to the airway have been described in the literature but there is a lack of guidance on the optimal method for securi...

    Authors: Christopher J Groombridge, Amit Maini, Joseph Mathew, Yesul Kim, Mark Fitzgerald, De Villiers Smit and Gerard O’Reilly

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:104

    Content type: Original research

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  37. Cardiac arrest (CA) is a leading cause of death worldwide. As population ages, the need for research focusing on CA in elderly increases. This study investigated treatment intensity, 12-month neurological outc...

    Authors: Ester Holmström, Ilmar Efendijev, Rahul Raj, Pirkka T. Pekkarinen, Erik Litonius and Markus B. Skrifvars

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:103

    Content type: Original research

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  38. Previous studies have stated that hyperventilation often occurs in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) mainly due to excessive ventilation frequencies, especially when a manual valve bag is used. Transport ven...

    Authors: Simon Orlob, Johannes Wittig, Christoph Hobisch, Daniel Auinger, Gabriel Honnef, Tobias Fellinger, Robin Ristl, Otmar Schindler, Philipp Metnitz, Georg Feigl and Gerhard Prause

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:102

    Content type: Original research

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  39. Blood alcohol level (BAL) has previously been considered as a factor influencing the outcome of injured patients. Despite the well-known positive correlation between alcohol-influenced traffic participation an...

    Authors: Thomas Brockamp, Andreas Böhmer, Rolf Lefering, Bertil Bouillon, Arasch Wafaisade, Manuel Mutschler, Paola Kappel and Matthias Fröhlich

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:101

    Content type: Original research

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  40. Despite a widely acknowledged increase in older people presenting with traumatic injury in western populations there remains a lack of research into the optimal prehospital management of this vulnerable patien...

    Authors: Michael Eichinger, Henry Douglas Pow Robb, Cosmo Scurr, Harriet Tucker, Stefan Heschl and George Peck

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:100

    Content type: Review

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  41. In chemical incidents, infrequent but potentially disastrous, the World Health Organization calls for inter-organizational coordination of actors involved. Multi-organizational studies of chemical response cap...

    Authors: Anton Westman, Britt-Inger Saveman, Ulf Björnstig, Johan Hylander and Lina Gyllencreutz

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:99

    Content type: Original research

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  42. Self-Inflating Resuscitation Bags (SIRB) are common and essential tools in airway management and ventilation. They are often used in resuscitation and emergency anaesthesia outside the operating theatre. There...

    Authors: Sven Grauman, Joakim Johansson and Thomas Drevhammar

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:98

    Content type: Original research

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  43. In acute ischemic stroke, conjugated eye deviation (CED) is an evident sign of cortical ischemia and large vessel occlusion (LVO). We aimed to determine if an emergency dispatcher can recognise LVO stroke duri...

    Authors: Pauli E. T. Vuorinen, Jyrki P. J. Ollikainen, Pasi A. Ketola, Riikka-Liisa K. Vuorinen, Piritta A. Setälä and Sanna E. Hoppu

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:97

    Content type: Original research

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  44. As any traumatic event, avalanches could trigger psychological disorders on survivors. Our objectives were to determine the prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder among avalanche survivors and to evaluat...

    Authors: Charlotte Léonard, Anaëlle Charriau-Perret, Guillaume Debaty, Loïc Belle, Cécile Ricard, Caroline Sanchez, Pierre-Marie Dupré, Gregory Panoff, Thierry Bougerol, Damien Viglino and Marc Blancher

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:96

    Content type: Original research

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  45. There is a lack of knowledge how patients with COVID-19 disease differ from patients with similar signs or symptoms (but who will have a diagnosis other than COVID-19) in the prehospital setting. The aim of th...

    Authors: Markku Kuisma, Heini Harve-Rytsälä, Jussi Pirneskoski, James Boyd, Mitja Lääperi, Ari Salo and Tuukka Puolakka

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:95

    Content type: Original research

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  46. Traumatic brain injuries (TBI) are associated with high risk of morbidity and mortality. Early outcome prediction in patients with TBI require reliable data input and stable prognostic models. The aim of this ...

    Authors: Djino Khaki, Virpi Hietanen, Alba Corell, Helena Odenstedt Hergès and Johan Ljungqvist

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:94

    Content type: Original research

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  47. Transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) is the first-line nonsurgical treatment for severe blunt liver injury in patients, whereas operative management (OM) is recommended for hemodynamically unstable patien...

    Authors: Satoshi Tamura, Takaaki Maruhashi, Fumie Kashimi, Yutaro Kurihara, Tomonari Masuda, Tasuku Hanajima, Yuichi Kataoka and Yasushi Asari

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:66

    Content type: Original research

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    The Commentary to this article has been published in Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:93

  48. We aimed to investigate the medical characteristics of helicopter hoist operations (HHO) in HEMS missions.

    Authors: Urs Pietsch, Jürgen Knapp, Michael Mann, Lorenz Meuli, Volker Lischke, Mario Tissi, Stephen Sollid, Simon Rauch, Volker Wenzel, Stefan Becker and Roland Albrecht

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:92

    Content type: Original research

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  49. Hypothermia significantly affects mortality and morbidity of newborns. Literature about severe accidental hypothermia in neonates is limited. We report a case of a neonate suffering from severe accidental hypo...

    Authors: Astrid Kuonen, Thomas Riva and Gabor Erdoes

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:91

    Content type: Case report

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