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Table 1 Baseline characteristics and outcomes, Treatment at the hospitals with high ICP monitoring utilization vs. low utilization

From: Hospital-level intracranial pressure monitoring utilization and functional outcome in severe traumatic brain injury: a post hoc analysis of prospective multicenter observational study

Variables Overall n = 427 High group n = 60 Low group n = 367 P value Missing data
Age, years, median [IQR] 65 [46, 77] 65 [43, 78] 66 [47, 77] 0.755 0
Male sex, n (%) 282 (66) 36 (60) 246 (67) 0.305 0
Prescribing anticoagulant drugs, n (%) 19 (4.4) 2 (3.3) 17 (4.6) 1 0
Prescribing antiplatelet drugs, n (%) 36 (8.4) 7 (11.7) 29 (7.9) 0.319 0
Glasgow Coma Scale score, median [IQR]      0
 Overall score 6 [3, 7] 6 [3, 7] 6 [3, 7] 0.305  
 Motor score 3 [1, 4] 4 [1, 5] 3 [1, 4] 0.288  
Pupillary reflex, n (%)     0.334 0
 None 110 (26) 13 (22) 97 (26)   
 One 91 (21) 17 (28) 74 (20)   
 Both 226 (53) 30 (50) 196 (53)   
Hypotension, n (%) 60 (14) 7 (12) 53 (14) 0.69 0
Body temperature, °C, median [IQR] 36.2 [35.8, 36.8] 36.2 [35.9, 36.9] 36.2 [35.8, 36.8] 0.367 34
Marshall CT classification, n (%)     0.002 0
 diffuse injury I 9 (2.1) 1 (1.7) 8 (2.2)   
 diffuse injury II 96 (22.5) 12 (20.0) 84 (22.9)   
 diffuse injury III 48 (11.2) 3 (5.0) 45 (12.3)   
 diffuse injury IV 11 (2.6) 2 (3.3) 9 (2.5)   
 evacuated mass 175 (41.0) 38 (63.3) 137 (37.3)   
 non-evacuated mass 88 (20.6) 4 (6.7) 84 (22.9)   
Injury Severity Score, median [IQR] 25 [25, 35] 25 [18, 29] 25 [18, 29] 0.045 0
Isolated traumatic brain injury, n (%) 173 (41) 28 (47) 145 (40) 0.322 0
Cause of injury, n (%)     0.344 2
 Motor vehicle 27 (6.3) 26 (7.1) 1 (1.7)   
 Motorcycle 53 (12.4) 45 (12.3) 8 (13.6)   
 Bicycle 34 (8.0) 28 (7.7) 6 (10.2)   
 Pedestrian 90 (21.1) 82 (22.4) 8 (13.6)   
 High-level fall 115 (27.0) 95 (26.0) 20 (33.9)   
 Ground-level fall 79 (18.5) 68 (18.6) 11 (18.6)   
 Others 18 (4.2) 22 (6.0) 5 (8.5)   
Treatment with ICP monitoring, n (%) 192 (45) 55 (92) 137 (37) < 0.001 0
Treatment at university hospitals, n (%) 257 (60) 45 (75) 212 (58) 0.015 0
GOS at 6 months after injury, n (%)     0.074 0
Good recovery 75 (17.6) 12 (20.0) 63 (17.2)   
Moderate disability 62 (14.5) 15 (25.0) 47 (12.8)   
Severe disability 40 (9.4) 7 (11.7) 33 (9.0)   
Vegetable state 41 (9.6) 4 (6.7) 37 (10.1)   
Death 209 (48.9) 22 (36.7) 187 (51.0)   
Favorable outcome at 6 months after injury, n (%) 137 (32) 27 (45) 110 (30) 0.025 0
  1. IQR interquartile range, CT computed tomography, ICP intracranial pressure, GOS Glasgow Outcome Scale