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Table 1 Estimated sensitivity and specificity of individual key indicator symptoms reported in EMS calls, compared to call handlers’ performance

From: Predictors of recognition of out of hospital cardiac arrest by emergency medical services call handlers in England: a mixed methods diagnostic accuracy study

  Sensitivity (95% CI) Specificity (95% CI)
Call handlers’ performance 72.8 (65.8–79.1) 99.4 (99.3–99.6)
Key indicator symptom
 Unconscious 86.0 (80.2–90.5) 93.4 (89.0–96.2)
 Not Breathing 57.9 (50.6–65.0) 97.5 (94.4–99.1)
 Ineffective Breathing 57.3 (50.0–64.5) 60.5 (53.2–67.4)
 Collapse 43.8 (36.6–51.1) 84.4 (78.8–89.2)
 Breathing Yes/Effective 30.3 (23.9–37.6) 16.4 (11.8–22.6)
 Change in Colour 29.2 (22.9–36.0) 81.7 (75.6–86.8)
 Noisy Breathing 25.8 (19.8–32.8) 92.2 (87.4–95.3)
 Died 21.9 (16.2–28.6) 99.3 (96.9–99.9)
 Mouth/Vomit 18.5 (13.4–24.9) 89.4 (84.2–93.2)
 Conscious 16.3 (11.2–22.4) 19.8 (14.3–26.0)
 Eyes open/Staring 15.7 (11.0–21.8) 97.1 (93.9–98.8)
 Cool/Clammy/Cold 15.7 (10.7–21.6) 77.9 (71.3–83.6)
 Reduced or Fluctuating Consciousness 15.2 (10.3–20.9) 79.6 (73.2–84.9)
 Sudden Onset/Deterioration 13.5 (9.0–19.1) 96.1 (92.4–98.3)
 Major Trauma/Haemorrhage 13.5 (8.9–19.2) 95.5 (91.6–97.8)
 Serious/Urgent Problem 10.1 (6.3–15.6) 97.2 (93.9–98.8)
 Cardiac Symptoms/Disease1 7.9 (4.4–12.4) 85.1 (79.5–89.9)
 No Pulse/Output 7.3 (4.0–11.7) 99.4 (97.1–100)
 Bystander resuscitation2 6.7 (3.6–11.0) 100.0 (99.9–100)
 Uncoordinated Movement 6.7 (3.7–11.2) 97.2 (93.7–98.8)
 Seizure-like Activity 6.7 (3.6–11.1) 98.3 (95.4–99.4)
 Unknown or Non-specific Problem 5.1 (2.4–9.1) 92.3 (87.6–95.6)
 Abnormal Pulse/Heart Rate 3.4 (1.2–6.8) 97.8 (94.5–99.4)
 Stroke-like Symptoms 2.8 (1.1–6.2) 96.1 (92.2–98.3)
 Self-harm 2.2 (0.6–5.5) 99.4 (96.8–100)
 Psychiatric Symptoms 1.7 (0.5–4.4) 97.2 (94.0–98.9)
 Death Imminent 0.6 (0.0–2.7) 99.5 (97.0–100)
 Drug/Alcohol use 0.6 (0.0–2.8) 93.9 (89.6–96.8)
  1. 1e.g. chest pain, medical history, 2Including Airway Management /Defibrillation use