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Table 2 Association between 21 variables and sepsisa among 551b ambulance patients with suspected infection

From: The predictive value of variables measurable in the ambulance and the development of the Predict Sepsis screening tools: a prospective cohort study

VariableCategoryCrudeUnivariable, unadjustedMultivariable, adjusted
n = 551P-valuen = 551Adjusted for all factors that were significant in the univariable analysis,n = 484
nc% sepsisOR95% CIP-valueOR95% CI
Keywords related to medical history
 Fever or suspected feveryesd41745.10.0051.81.2–2.70.981.00.6–1.7
no13431.3RefRefRefRef
 Painyesd27743.00.531.10.8–1.6
no27340.3RefRefRefRef
 Acute altered mental statusyesd34449.4< 0.0012.41.7–3.50.031.81.1–2.9
no20729.0RefRefRefRef
 Weakness of the legsyesd44244.60.0071.91.2–2.90.611.20.6–2.1
no10930.3RefRefRefRef
 Breathing difficultiesyesd29948.20.0011.81.3–2.60.241.30.8–2.2
no25034.0RefRefRefRef
 Loss of energyyesd50143.10.042.01.0–3.70.791.10.5–2.6
no5028.0RefRefRefRef
 Gastrointestinal symptomsyesd21452.8< 0.0012.11.5–2.3.00.0061.91.2–2.9
no33634.8RefRefRefRef
 Risk factors for sepsisyesd25647.70.0081.61.1–2.20.461.20.8–1.9
no29336.5RefRefRefRef
Vital signs
 Respiratory rate > 24 breaths/minyes18956.1< 0.0012.41.7–3.50.531.20.7–2.0
no36134.3RefRefRefRef
 Oxygen saturation < 94%yes23255.6< 0.0012.81.9–3.90.081.61.0–2.5
no31931.2RefRefRefRef
 Heart rate > 110 beats/minyes10658.1< 0.0012.31.5–3.50.091.60.9–2.8
no44637.8RefRefRefRef
 Systolic blood pressure ≤ 100 mmHgyes5468.5< 0.0013.41.9–6.30.0013.61.7–7.6
no49638.7RefRefRefRef
 Level of consciousness, GCS <15yes11567.0< 0.0013.82.4–5.8< 0.0013.52.0–6.2
no41635.0RefRefRefRef
Temperature, °C      < 0.001  
  ≤ 38.0yes23527.0RefRefRefRef
 38.1–38.5yes9141.80.011.91.2–3.20.022.21.1–4.2
  > 38.5yes22356.1< 0.0013.42.3–5.1< 0.0013.32.0–5.6
POC-tests
 P-Glucose > 6.5 mmol/Lyes41042.70.101.50.9–2.3
no10533.7RefRefRefRef
P-Lactate, mmol/L      0.08 
  ≤ 2.0yes34036.1RefRefRefRef 
 2.1–4.0yes16046.30.031.51.0–2.20.351.30.8–2.1
  > 4.0yes3876.3< 0.0015.72.6–12.40.032.81.1–7.3
P-suPAR, ng/mL      0.31  
  < 4.0yes18430.4RefRefRefRef
 4.0–7.99yes26341.40.021.61.1–2.40.411.20.8–2.0
  ≥ 8.0yes9364.5< 0.0014.22.4–7.10.131.70.9–3.4
 P-HBP ≥15.0 ng/mLyes23552.8< 0.0012.31.6–3.20.371.20.8–2.0
no29033.1RefRefRefRef
Demographic variables
 Age ≥ 65 yearsyes47441.60.830.90.6–1.5
no7742.9RefRefRefRef
 Gender, maleyes33143.80.231.20.9–1.8
no22038.6RefRefRefRef
 Charlson comorbidity score ≥ 5 pointsyes8655.80.0042.01.2–3.10.131.60.9–3.1
no46539.1RefRefRefRef
  1. OR Odds Ratio, CI Confidence Interval, Ref Reference, GCS Glasgow Coma Scale, suPAR soluble urokinase Plasminogen Activating Receptor, HBP Heparin Binding Protein
  2. aSepsis is defined in accordance with Sepsis-3 as a) infection + ≥2 SOFA criteria, or b) infection + vasopressor need and lactate > 2 (septic shock)
  3. bOf total 553 patients with infection according to clinical judgment by ambulance personnel, 551 patients had the required documentation to determine whether the patient had sepsis or not. These 551 patients were included in the regression analysis
  4. cof patients with documentation of the variable
  5. dPatients that were not able to answer yes or no were included in the yes-category in the logistic regression and classification tree analyses (11–30 patients/keyword), based on similarity in prevalence of sepsis and overlapping CIs in these groups
  6. Significant P-values are bolded