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Table 2 Subgroup analyses of in-hospital mortality rates between propensity score-matched groups

From: Outcomes after helicopter versus ground emergency medical services for major trauma--propensity score and instrumental variable analyses: a retrospective nationwide cohort study

  Matched groups
HEMS, % No. of deaths/Total No. GEMS, % No. of deaths/Total No. p Value
Mechanism of injury
 Automobile crash 18.0 (135/752) 17.5 (132/756) .80
 Motorcycle crash 19.1 (116/608) 19.7 (124/631) .80
 Bicycle crash 30.7 (83/270) 29.2 (79/271) .69
 Pedestrian traffic accident 42.9 (124/289) 41.8 (123/294) .79
 Other vehicle 41.5 (17/41) 25.0 (10/40) .12
 Fall from high place or Stairs 21.1 (293/1391) 26.6 (364/1366) .001
 Machine injury 22.0 (11/50) 23.4 (11/47) .87
 Falling object or Explosion 14.3 (14/98) 19.1 (17/89) .38
 Compression injury 16.1 (25/155) 31.5 (52/165) .001
 Train 31.3 (5/16) 46.7 (7/15) .38
 Sports 8.8 (8/91) 2.2 (2/91) .05
 Other blunt injury 25.0 (22/88) 22.4 (22/98) .68
 Penetrating 19.4 (12/62) 29.1 (16/55) .22
 missing 24.6 (17/69) 24.2 (15/62) .95
Injury distribution with AIS ≥3
 Head 32.6 (625/1916) 32.0 (609/1902) .69
 Face 22.2 (18/81) 34.2 (26/76) .10
 Neck 20.8 (5/24) 33.3 (7/21) .34
 Chest 23.4 (514/2197) 29.1 (627/2153) <.001
 Abdomen 31.3 (163/521) 31.6 (162/512) .90
 Spine 12.9 (111/862) 14.1 (126/894) .46
 Extremity 23.7 (271/1144) 33.9 (370/1092) <.001
 Skin 14.3 (1/7) 37.5 (3/8) .31
Hospital type
 Tertiary 22.2 (877/3951) 24.7 (937/3798) .01
 Secondary 17.2 (5/29) 20.3 (37/182) .70
  1. HEMS helicopter emergency medical services, GEMS ground emergency medical services, AIS abbreviated injury scale