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  1. Aggressive fluid management and other external factors may lead to hypothermia, acidosis and hemodilution (defined as Lethal Triad, LT) contributing to a trauma-induced coagulopathy (TIC) that worsens patients...

    Authors: Julia K. Böhm, Nadine Schäfer, Marc Maegele, Birgit Stümpges, Ursula Bauerfeind and Michael Caspers

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:38

    Content type: Original research

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  2. Transthoracic echocardiographic (TTE) indices of myocardial function among survivors of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) have been related to neurological outcome; however, results are inconsistent. We hy...

    Authors: Thomas Hvid Jensen, Peter Juhl-Olsen, Bent Roni Ranghøj Nielsen, Johan Heiberg, Christophe Henri Valdemar Duez, Anni Nørgaard Jeppesen, Christian Alcaraz Frederiksen, Hans Kirkegaard and Anders Morten Grejs

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:37

    Content type: Original research

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  3. Pain is one of the major symptoms complained about by patients in the prehospital setting, especially in the case of trauma. When there is mountainous topography, as in Switzerland, there may be a time delay b...

    Authors: Urs Pietsch, Yoël Berger, David Schurter, Lorenz Theiler, Volker Wenzel, Lorenz Meuli, Andreas Grünenfelder and Roland Albrecht

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:36

    Content type: Original research

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  4. ABGs are performed in acute conditions as the reference method for assessing the acid-base status of blood. Hyperventilation and breath-holding are common ventilatory changes that occur around the time of samp...

    Authors: Lisha Shastri, Søren Kjærgaard, Peter S. Thyrrestrup, Stephen E. Rees and Lars P. Thomsen

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:35

    Content type: Original research

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  5. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Peter Hilbert-Carius, Manuel F. Struck, Veronika Hofer, Jochen Hinkelbein, Leif Rognås, Jörn Adler, Michael D. Christian, Thomas Wurmb, Michael Bernhard and Björn Hossfeld

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:34

    Content type: Correction

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    The original article was published in Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2020 28:112

  6. Early pre-hospital identification of critically ill patients reduces morbidity and mortality. To identify critically ill non-traumatic and non-cardiac arrest patients, a pre-hospital risk stratification tool w...

    Authors: Lars I. Veldhuis, Markus W. Hollmann, Fabian O. Kooij and Milan L. Ridderikhof

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:32

    Content type: Original research

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  7. Some emergency medical systems (EMS) use a dispatch centre where nurses or paramedics assess emergency calls and dispatch ambulances. Paramedics may also provide the first tier of care “in the field”, with the...

    Authors: Victor Nathan Chappuis, Hélène Deham, Philippe Cottet, Birgit Andrea Gartner, François Pierre Sarasin, Marc Niquille, Laurent Suppan and Robert Larribau

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:31

    Content type: Original research

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  8. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), an emerging virus, has caused a global pandemic. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by SARS-CoV-2, has led to high hospitalization rates w...

    Authors: Kevin Roedl, Gerold Söffker, Dominik Fischer, Jakob Müller, Dirk Westermann, Malte Issleib, Stefan Kluge and Dominik Jarczak

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:30

    Content type: Original research

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  9. Over the past decade Smartphone-based activation (SBA) of Community First Responders (CFR) to out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCA) has gained much attention and popularity throughout Europe. Various programm...

    Authors: Camilla Metelmann, Bibiana Metelmann, Dorothea Kohnen, Peter Brinkrolf, Linn Andelius, Bernd W. Böttiger, Roman Burkart, Klaus Hahnenkamp, Mario Krammel, Tore Marks, Michael P. Müller, Stefan Prasse, Remy Stieglis, Bernd Strickmann and Karl Christian Thies

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:29

    Content type: Original research

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  10. Sufficient analgesia is an obligation, but oligoanalgesia (NRS> 3) is frequently observed prehospitally. Potent analgesics may cause severe adverse events. Thus, analgesia in the helicopter emergency medical s...

    Authors: Christopher Rugg, Simon Woyke, Wolfgang Voelckel, Peter Paal and Mathias Ströhle

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:28

    Content type: Original research

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  11. Virtual reality is an innovative technology for medical education associated with high empirical realism.

    Authors: Malte Issleib, Alina Kromer, Hans O. Pinnschmidt, Christoph Süss-Havemann and Jens C. Kubitz

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:27

    Content type: Original research

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  12. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) and shock index (SI) are accurate indicators of hemodynamic instability and the need for transfusion in trauma patients. We aimed to determine whether the utility and cutoff point...

    Authors: Se Jin Park, Mi Jin Lee, Changho Kim, Haewon Jung, Seong Hun Kim, Wooyoung Nho, Kang Suk Seo, Jungbae Park, Hyun Wook Ryoo, Jae Yun Ahn, Sungbae Moon, Jae Wan Cho and Shin-ah Son

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:26

    Content type: Original research

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  13. Consensus methods such as the Delphi technique have been used widely for research priority setting in health care. Within pre-hospital emergency medicine, such approaches have helped to establish national and ...

    Authors: Sarah McLachlan and Hilary Bungay

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:25

    Content type: Original research

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  14. The effects of the body mass index (BMI) on outcomes of patients resuscitated from cardiac arrest are controversial. Therefore, the current study investigated the association between the BMI and the favourable...

    Authors: Heekyung Lee, Jaehoon Oh, Hyunggoo Kang, Tae Ho Lim, Byuk Sung Ko, Hyuk Joong Choi, Seung Min Park, You Hwan Jo, Jong Suk Lee, Yoo Seok Park, Young-Hoon Yoon, Su Jin Kim and Young-Gi Min

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:24

    Content type: Original research

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  15. One factor leading to the high mortality rate seen in sepsis is the subtle, dynamic nature of the disease, which can lead to delayed detection and under-resuscitation. This study investigated whether serial he...

    Authors: Steve B. Chukwulebe, David F. Gaieski, Abhishek Bhardwaj, Lakeisha Mulugeta-Gordon, Frances S. Shofer and Anthony J. Dean

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:23

    Content type: Original research

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  16. The aim of the present study was to investigate the incidence of psychological distress and posttraumatic stress symptoms in trauma patients who have been recruited from the resuscitation room. Further, we wan...

    Authors: Iris Reiner, Manfred E. Beutel, Philipp Winter, Pol M. Rommens and Sebastian Kuhn

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:22

    Content type: Original research

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  17. Ambulance services play an important role in the healthcare system when it comes to handling accidents or acute illnesses outside of hospitals. At the time of patient handover from emergency medical technician...

    Authors: Sveinbjörn Dúason, Björn Gunnarsson and Margrét Hrönn Svavarsdóttir

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:21

    Content type: Original research

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  18. The risk of COVID-19 transmission to healthcare professionals is likely to continue for the foreseeable future. The wearing of personal protective equipment (PPE) presents a number of potential challenges to r...

    Authors: James Raitt, Ben Watts, Jaspreet Rayet, Mark Hodkinson and David Zideman

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:20

    Content type: Case report

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  19. Futile resuscitation for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients in the coronavirus disease (COVID)-19 era can lead to risk of disease transmission and unnecessary transport. Various existing basic or a...

    Authors: Haewon Jung, Mi Jin Lee, Jae Wan Cho, Sang Hun Lee, Suk Hee Lee, You Ho Mun, Han-sol Chung, Yang Hun Kim, Gyun Moo Kim, Sin-youl Park, Jae Cheon Jeon and Changho Kim

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:19

    Content type: Original research

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  20. The Scandinavian Rapid Emergency Triage and Treatment System-pediatric (RETTS-p) is a reliable triage system that includes both assessment of vital parameters and a systematic approach to history and symptoms....

    Authors: Siv Steinsmo Ødegård, Thuy Tran, Lars E. Næss-Pleym, Kari Risnes and Henrik Døllner

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:18

    Content type: Original research

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  21. Motor vehicle collisions (MVCs) are a common cause of major trauma and death. Following an MVC, up to 40% of patients will be trapped in their vehicle. Extrication methods are focused on the prevention of seco...

    Authors: Tim Nutbeam, Rob Fenwick, Jason Smith, Omar Bouamra, Lee Wallis and Willem Stassen

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:17

    Content type: Original research

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  22. Despite critical hypoxemia, Covid-19 patients may present without proportional signs of respiratory distress. We report three patients with critical respiratory failure due to Covid-19, in which all presented ...

    Authors: Jens Otto Mæhlen, Roger Mikalsen, Hans Julius Heimdal, Marius Rehn, Jostein S. Hagemo and William Ottestad

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:16

    Content type: Case report

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  23. Management of patients with coma of unknown etiology (CUE) is a major challenge in most emergency departments (EDs). CUE is associated with a high mortality and a wide variety of pathologies that require diffe...

    Authors: Maximilian Lutz, Martin Möckel, Tobias Lindner, Christoph J. Ploner, Mischa Braun and Wolf Ulrich Schmidt

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:15

    Content type: Original research

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  24. Multitasking is a key skill for emergency department (ED) providers. Yet, potentially beneficial or debilitating effects for provider functioning and cognition are underexplored. We therefore aimed to investig...

    Authors: Tobias Augenstein, Anna Schneider, Markus Wehler and Matthias Weigl

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:14

    Content type: Original research

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  25. The challenges encountered in emergency medical services (EMS) contacts with children are likely most pronounced in infants, but little is known about their out-of-hospital care. Our primary aim was to describ...

    Authors: Jelena Oulasvirta, Heini Harve-Rytsälä, Mitja Lääperi, Markku Kuisma and Heli Salmi

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:13

    Content type: Original research

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  26. Unnecessary whole-body computed tomography (CT) may lead to excess radiation exposure. Serum D-dimer levels have been reported to correlate with injury severity. We examined the predictive value of serum D-dim...

    Authors: Rakuhei Nakama, Ryo Yamamoto, Yoshimitsu Izawa, Keiichi Tanimura and Takashi Mato

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:12

    Content type: Original research

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  27. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the number of patients reported to a hospital with injuries from consumer fireworks in the months December–January in the past 10 years, and to describe the associ...

    Authors: Daan T. Van Yperen, Esther M. M. Van Lieshout, J. Niels Dijkshoorn, Cornelis H. Van der Vlies and Michael H. J. Verhofstad

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:11

    Content type: Original research

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  28. Efficient and timely airway management is universally recognised as a priority for major trauma patients, a proportion of whom require emergency intubation in the pre-hospital setting. Adverse events occur mor...

    Authors: Kate Crewdson, Ainsley Heywoth, Marius Rehn, Samy Sadek and David Lockey

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:10

    Content type: Original research

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  29. Although the results of previous studies suggested the effectiveness of physician-led prehospital trauma management, it has been uncertain because of the limited number of high-quality studies. Furthermore, th...

    Authors: Akira Endo, Mitsuaki Kojima, Saya Uchiyama, Atsushi Shiraishi and Yasuhiro Otomo

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:9

    Content type: Original research

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  30. In this review, we assess the state of Resuscitative Endovascular Occlusion of the Aorta (REBOA) today with respect to out-of-hospital (OOH) vs. inhospital (H) use in blunt and penetrating trauma, as well as d...

    Authors: Marianne A. Thrailkill, Kevin H. Gladin, Catherine R. Thorpe, Teryn R. Roberts, Jae H. Choi, Kevin K. Chung, Corina N. Necsoiu, Todd E. Rasmussen, Leopoldo C. Cancio and Andriy I. Batchinsky

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:8

    Content type: Review

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  31. The aim of this study was to identify key indicator symptoms and patient factors associated with correct out of hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) dispatch allocation. In previous studies, from 3% to 62% of OHCAs ...

    Authors: Caroline L. Watkins, Stephanie P. Jones, Margaret A. Hurley, Valerio Benedetto, Christopher I. Price, Christopher J. Sutton, Tom Quinn, Munirah Bangee, Brigit Chesworth, Colette Miller, Dawn Doran, Aloysius Niroshan Siriwardena and Josephine M. E. Gibson

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:7

    Content type: Original research

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  32. Tranexamic acid reduces surgical blood loss and reduces deaths from bleeding in trauma patients. Tranexamic acid must be given urgently, preferably by paramedics at the scene of the injury or in the ambulance....

    Authors: Francois-Xavier Ageron, Timothy J. Coats, Vincent Darioli and Ian Roberts

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:6

    Content type: Original research

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  33. Several observational studies have shown that hospital-level intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring utilization varies considerably in patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, the relationsh...

    Authors: Tomoya Okazaki, Kenya Kawakita and Yasuhiro Kuroda

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:5

    Content type: Original research

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  34. The role of ambulance services is shifting, due in part to more intermediate, non-urgent patients who do not require direct emergency department conveyance, yet who cannot be safely left at home alone. Evidenc...

    Authors: Joanna M. Blodgett, Duncan J. Robertson, Elspeth Pennington, David Ratcliffe and Kenneth Rockwood

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:4

    Content type: Review

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  35. The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) pandemic has affected prehospital care systems across the world, but the prehospital presentation of affected patients and the extent to which prehospital care pro...

    Authors: Douglas Spangler, Hans Blomberg and David Smekal

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:3

    Content type: Original research

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  36. MiRNA-155 and miRNA-145 have been demonstrated to function as a key regulator in the development of the cardiovascular system. Recent experimental and clinical studies have indicated the cardioprotective role ...

    Authors: Yong He, Guoxing Wang, Chuang Li, Yuxing Wang and Qian Zhang

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:2

    Content type: Original research

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  37. Trauma is a significant cause of death and impairment. The Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) differentiates the severity of trauma and is the basis for different trauma scores and prediction models. While the maj...

    Authors: O. Kamp, O. Jansen, R. Lefering, M. Aach, C. Waydhas, M. Dudda, T. A. Schildhauer and U. Hamsen

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:1

    Content type: Original research

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  38. The COVID-19 outbreak requires a permanent adaptation of practices. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is also involved and we evaluated these changes in the management of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA).

    Authors: Valentine Baert, Deborah Jaeger, Hervé Hubert, Jean-Baptiste Lascarrou, Guillaume Debaty, Tahar Chouihed and François Javaudin

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2020 28:119

    Content type: Original research

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  39. The current COVID-19 pandemic is highlighting gaps around the world in the design and workflow of Emergency Departments (ED). These gaps have an impact on both patient care and staff safety and represent a ris...

    Authors: Gayathri Devi Nadarajan, Eunizar Omar, Benjamin S. Abella, Pei Shan Hoe, Sang Do Shin, Matthew Huei-Ming Ma and Marcus Eng Hock Ong

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2020 28:118

    Content type: Review

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  40. Multiple trauma in mountain environments may be associated with increased morbidity and mortality compared to urban environments.

    Authors: G. Sumann, D. Moens, B. Brink, M. Brodmann Maeder, M. Greene, M. Jacob, P. Koirala, K. Zafren, M. Ayala, M. Musi, K. Oshiro, A. Sheets, G. Strapazzon, D. Macias and P. Paal

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2020 28:117

    Content type: Review

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  41. It is customary to believe that a patient with a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score less than or equal to 8 should be intubated to avoid aspiration. We conducted a systematic review to establish if patients with G...

    Authors: Daniele Orso, Luigi Vetrugno, Nicola Federici, Natascia D’Andrea and Tiziana Bove

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2020 28:116

    Content type: Review

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  42. Major incidents are defined as: An event or situation with a range of serious consequences, which require special arrangements to be implemented by one, or more emergency responder agency. The ability for a he...

    Authors: Dominic Hampson

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2020 28:115

    Content type: Commentary

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  43. COVID-19 outbreak lead to nationwide lockdown in Finland on the March 16th, 2020. Previous data regarding to the patient load in the emergency departments during pandemics is scarce. Our aim is to describe the...

    Authors: Ilari Kuitunen, Ville T. Ponkilainen, Antti P. Launonen, Aleksi Reito, Teemu P. Hevonkorpi, Juha Paloneva and Ville M. Mattila

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2020 28:114

    Content type: Original research

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  44. Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) for Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-COV-2) diagnosis currently requires quite a long time span. A quicker and more efficient diagn...

    Authors: Thomas Langer, Martina Favarato, Riccardo Giudici, Gabriele Bassi, Roberta Garberi, Fabiana Villa, Hedwige Gay, Anna Zeduri, Sara Bragagnolo, Alberto Molteni, Andrea Beretta, Matteo Corradin, Mauro Moreno, Chiara Vismara, Carlo Federico Perno, Massimo Buscema…

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2020 28:113

    Content type: Original research

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  45. Mechanical ventilation in helicopter emergency medical service (HEMS) environments is a procedure which carries a significant risk of complications. Limited data on the quality and performance of mechanical ve...

    Authors: Peter Hilbert-Carius, Manuel F. Struck, Veronika Hofer, Jochen Hinkelbein, Leif Rognås, Jörn Adler, Michael D. Christian, Thomas Wurmb, Michael Bernhard and Björn Hossfeld

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2020 28:112

    Content type: Original research

    Published on:

    The Correction to this article has been published in Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2021 29:34

  46. In-hospital resuscitation practices have changed by necessity in the Covid-19 era, principally due to precautions intended to protect caregivers from infection. This has resulted in serious delays in resuscita...

    Authors: John A. Stewart

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2020 28:109

    Content type: Commentary

    Published on:

  47. With the “Artemis”-mission mankind will return to the Moon by 2024. Prolonged periods in space will not only present physical and psychological challenges to the astronauts, but also pose risks concerning the ...

    Authors: Jochen Hinkelbein, Steffen Kerkhoff, Christoph Adler, Anton Ahlbäck, Stefan Braunecker, Daniel Burgard, Fabrizio Cirillo, Edoardo De Robertis, Eckard Glaser, Theresa K. Haidl, Pete Hodkinson, Ivan Zefiro Iovino, Stefanie Jansen, Kolaparambil Varghese Lydia Johnson, Saskia Jünger, Matthieu Komorowski…

    Citation: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2020 28:108

    Content type: Guideline

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