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Table 1 Demographics and clinical data of all TBI patients by survivors and non-survivors

From: Relationship between admission coagulopathy and prognosis in children with traumatic brain injury: a retrospective study

  All patients
(n = 281)
Survivors
(n = 228)
Non-survivors
(n = 53)
P value
Baseline Demographics
 Age, M 50.0 (19.5–87.0) 51.0 (20.3–87.0) 49.0 (18.0-85.5) 0.678
 Weight, kg 17.0 (11.3–24.0) 17.5 (11.0–25.0) 15.0 (12.0-21.3) 0.419
 Gender, male, n (%) 170 (60.5 %) 141 (61.8 %) 29 (54.7 %) 0.339
Injury severity
 GCS 8 (6–10) 8 (7–11) 5 (3–7) < 0.001
 PTS 5 (3–7) 5 (3–7) 2 (1–4) < 0.001
 ISS 18 (13–27) 18 (9–25) 25 (18–30) 0.003
Mechanism of injury     0.505
 Traffic, n (%) 109 (38.8 %) 92 (40.4 %) 17 (32.1 %)  
 Fall, n (%) 135 (48.0 %) 106 (46.5 %) 29 (54.7 %)  
 Others, n (%) 37 (13.2 %) 30 (13.2 %) 7 (13.2 %)  
Lesion type
 EDH, n (%) 82 (29.2 %) 74 (32.5 %) 8 (15.1 %) 0.018
 SDH, n (%) 98 (34.9 %) 78 (34.2 %) 20 (37.7 %) 0.476
 SAH, n (%) 137 (48.8 %) 106 (46.5 %) 31 (58.5 %) 0.057
 Contusion, n (%) 125 (44.5 %) 102 (44.7 %) 23 (43.4 %) 0.932
 Intraparenchymal hemorrhage,n(%) 42 (14.9 %) 36 (15.8 %) 6 (11.3 %) 0.477
 Polytrauma, n (%) 144 (51.2 %) 110 (48.2 %) 34 (64.2 %) 0.037
 Abnormal pupil, n (%) 109 (38.8 %) 62 (27.2 %) 47 (88.7 %) < 0.001
 Hypotension, n (%) 34 (12.1 %) 19 (8.3 %) 15 (28.3 %) < 0.001
Laboratory investigations
 Lactate, mmol/L 2.1 (0.8-4.0) 1.5 (0.8–3.2) 4.6 (2.9-7.0) < 0.001
 INR 1.16 (1.07–1.34) 1.14 (1.05–1.26) 1.49 (1.21–1.94) < 0.001
 APTT, s 29.4 (26.0-35.3) 28.6 (25.4–32.5) 44.4 (29.6–68.3) < 0.001
 Fibrinogen, mg/dL 134.0
(82.0-182.0)
143.0
(104.8–188.0)
71.0
(50.0-112.0)
< 0.001
 TT, s 18.7 (17.3–21.3) 18.3 (17.1–20.3) 22 (18.8–30.1) < 0.001
 D-dimer, ug/L 14,040
(3965–22,865)
13,665
(3790–22,348)
16,460
(5280–29,695)
0.127
 PLT, /uL 261.0
(200.0-324.0)
264.5
(208.3-331.3)
210.0
(158.0-298.0)
0.006
 Hgb, g/L 98.0
(81.5–111.0)
101.0
(84.3–113.0)
85.0
(68.0-102.0)
< 0.001
 WBC, *10^9/L 16.6(12.2–21.5) 16.7(12.2–21.1) 15.9(12.7–23.1) 0.486
  1. Data are shown as the median (interquartile range) or a number (percentage)
  2. M month, GCS Glasgow Coma Score, PTS Pediatric Trauma Score, ISS Injury Severity Score, EDH epidural hemorrhage, SDH subdural hemorrhage, SAH subarachnoid hemorrhage, INR International normalized ratio, APTT activated partial thromboplastin time, TT Thrombin time, PLT platelet count, HgB hemoglobin, WBC white blood cell