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Table 5 Survival according to bystander CPR group

From: Impact of dispatcher-assisted cardiopulmonary resuscitation on neurologically intact survival in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: a systematic review

Author, year of publication Survival at discharge Survival at one-month Survival at one-year Adjusted OR (CI) for survival at … Proportion of OHCA calls where DA-CPR was provided % (m/M)
DA-CPR provided % (n/N) Bystander CPR provided without DA % (n/N) No bystander CPR % (n/N) DA-CPR provided % (n/N) Bystander CPR provided without DA % (n/N) No bystander CPR % (n/N) DA-CPR provided % (n/N) Bystander CPR provided without DA % (n/N) No bystander CPR % (n/N)
Chang et al., 2018 [37] 8.6% (64/747) 13.0% (38/293) 3.5% (34/980)        …discharge:f
No BCPR: reference
BCPR: 2.87 (1.57–5.25)
DA-CPR: 2.23 (1.33–3.74)
37.0% (747/2020)
Eisenberg et al., 1985 [17] 20.7% (12/58) 24.7% (21/85) 13.4% (15/112)         22.7% (58/255)
Goto et al., 2014 [38]     11.5% (232/2019)a 14.9% (105/703) 8.4% (191/2287)     …one-month:g
No BCPR: reference
BCPR: 1.62 (1.23–2.11)
DA-CPR: 1.63 (1.32–2.02)
40.3% (2019/5009)
Harjanto et al., 2016 [39]     1.9% (1/52)b 6.2% (48/769) 3.1% (67/2147)      1.8% (52/2668)
Hasselqvist et al., 2015 [7]     10.9% (167/1530) 15.4% (374/2427)       38.7% (1530/3957)
Hiltunen et al., 2015 [40] 45.3% (24/53) 46.9% (23/49) 39.4% (13/33)     32.1% (17/53) 40.8% (20/49) 21.2% (7/33)   39.3% (53/135)
Kuisma et al., 2005 [41] 61.6% (53/86)c           29.4% (86/346)
Lewis et al., 2013 [42] 18.1% (38/210)   17.0% (16/94)         44.1% (210/476)d
Oman et al. 2016 [43] 4.3% (2/47) 15.4% (2/13) 4.5% (1/22)         57.3% (47/82)
Park et al., 2018 [44] 7.1% (1381/19,343) 9.0% (608/6753) 4.7% (1285/27,144)        …discharge: h
No BCPR: reference
Rural areas:
BCPR: 1.75 (1.01–3.04)
DA-CPR: 2.15 (1.35–3.43)
Urban areas:
BCPR: 1.15 (1.02–1.30)
DA-CPR: 1.10 (1.01–1.20)
36.3% (19,343/53,240)
Rea et al., 2001 [25] 15.2% (283/1867) 21.4% (470/2193) 11.3% (361/3205)        …discharge: i
No BCPR: reference
BCPR: 1.69 (1.42–2.01)
DA-CPR: 1.45 (1.21–1.73)
25.7% (1867/7265)
Shibahashi et al., 2019 [45]     5.6% (4834/86,913) 8.7% (4102/46,964) 5.0% (22,450/448,606)     …one-month:j
No BCPR: reference
BCPR: 1.76 (1.69–1.82)
DA-CPR: 1.24 (1.19–1.28)
14.9% (86,913/582,483)
Viereck et al., 2017 [46]     16.7% (56/357) 27.2% (49/191)      …one-month:k
DA-CPR: reference
BCPR: 1.14 (0.68–1.92)
65.1% (357/548)
Wu et al., 2018 [47] 12.3% (120/973) 15.5% (83/534) 8.6% (63/735)        …discharge: l
No BCPR: reference
BCPR: 1.51 (1.04–2.18)
DA-CPR: 1.64 (1.16–2.30)
43.4% (1002/2310)e
  1. BCPR bystander CPR, CI 95% confidence interval, CPC cerebral performance category, CPR cardiopulmonary resuscitation, DA dispatcher assistance, DA-CPR dispatcher assisted CPR, EMS emergency medical services, m number of OHCAs who received DA-CPR, M total number of OHCAs, n number with CPC 1 or 2, N, total number of OHCAs, OHCA out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, OR odds ratio
  2. aSurvival at one-month when DA was offered but bystander didn’t provide CPR: 10.3% (279/2698). Survival at one-month in cases where DA was not offered: 9.0% (144/1608)
  3. bSurvival to discharge or at day 30 after arrest
  4. cSurvival when DA was not offered: 32.3% (72/223), includes cases where bystander provided CPR without DA. Survival when DA was offered: 43.1% (53/123), includes both cases with DA-CPR provided and no bystander CPR
  5. dIncludes calls with bystander CPR without DA and calls where OHCA was not recognized, why the numbers in the three survival columns don’t add up to 476
  6. eMissing data why the numbers in the three survival columns does not add up to 1002 and 2310
  7. fAdjusted for: age, sex, etiology of arrest, witness status, shockable rhythm at scene, location of arrest, response time interval, level of property value of community
  8. gAdjusted for: age, sex, presumed cardiac etiology, witnessed by family member, shockable initial rhythm, call-to-response time
  9. hAdjusted for: age, sex, witnessed status, initial rhythm at scene, location of arrest, EMS response time, interaction term: bystander CPR x rural/urban location
  10. iAdjusted for: age, sex, witnessed status, location of arrest, EMS response time
  11. jAdjusted for: age, sex, presumed cardiac etiology, witnessed status, initial shockable rhythm, call-to-response time, call-to-hospital time, period of hospital admittance
  12. kAdjusted for: age, sex, witnessed status, number of bystanders
  13. lAdjusted for: age, sex, witnessed status, location of arrest, EMS arrival time