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Table 3 Proportions (%) of patients with the most frequent symptom codes for dispatching among the patients with and without each secondary outcome. I.e. 39.3% of patients requiring PICU admission and 27.3% of patients not requiring PICU admission had “Dyspnea” as symptom code. Comparisons between the proportions with and without were made using Fisher’s test

From: Why do infants need out-of-hospital emergency medical services? A retrospective, population-based study

  “Urgent dispatch before symptom specific code known” “Dyspnea” “Fall low energy” “Choking” “Seizure” “Slow deterioration of medical state” “Allergic reaction”
% of all (N = 28) patients with PICU admissions 21.4% 39.3% 0.0% 6% 7.1% 0.0% 0.0%
% of all (N = 1682) patients without PICU admission 5.0% 27.3% 19.0% 8.6% 6.8% 6.9% 4.2%
  P < 0.01 P = 0.02 P = 0.01 P = 0.51 P = 0.72 P = 0.25 P = 0.63
% of all (N = 91) patients with medical state other than good upon arrival at ED 8% 42.9% 4.4% 1.1% 15.4% 2.2% 4.4%
% of all (N = 1619) patients with medical state good upon arrival at ED or ED care not required 5.1% 26.7% 19.6% 8.8% 6.4% 7.1% 4.1%
  P = 0.14 P < 0.01 P < 0.01 P < 0.01 P < 0.01 P = 0.08 P = 0.79
% of all (N = 386) patients with any medication or respiratory support given at ED 7.0% 38.3% 6.2% 1.3% 13.2% 7.0% 7.5%
% of all (N = 1324) patients without any medication or respiratory support given at ED 4.8% 24.3% 22.4% 10.6% 5.0% 6.8% 3.2%
  P = 0.09 P < 0.01 P < 0.01 P < 0.01 P < 0.01 P = 0.91 P < 0.01
% of all (N = 336) patients with hospitalizationa 11.6% 36.3% 6.8% 3.3% 14.0% 3.6% 2.4%
% of all (N = 1363) patients without hospitalizationa 3.7% 25.3% 21.6% 9.8% 5.1% 7.6% 4.6%
  P < 0.01 P < 0.01 P < 0.01 P < 0.01 P < 0.01 P = 0.01 P = 0.07
% of all (N = 18) patients with surgical proceduresb
during the same visita
5.6% 5.6% 0.0% 38.9% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
% of all (N = 1692) patients without surgical proceduresb
during the same visita
5.3% 27.7% 18.9% 8.1% 6.9% 6.9% 4.2%
  P = 1.00 P = 0.03 P = 0.03 P < 0.01 P = 0.63 P = 0.63 P = 1.00
  1. ED Emergency department, PICU Pediatric intensive care unit, EMS Emergency medical services
  2. a During the same hospital visit beginning within 72 h after the initial EMS contact
  3. b Excluding minor procedures performed at the ED, e.g. insertion of a nasogastric tube