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Table 3 Baseline characteristics and treatment parameters of patients in whom eCPR was initiated stratified by survivor status

From: Establishment of an extracorporeal cardio-pulmonary resuscitation program in Berlin – outcomes of 254 patients with refractory circulatory arrest

Baseline characteristics
Variable All n = 126 Non-survivors n = 108 Survivors n = 18 p-value
Gender (male) 93 (74%) 79 (73%) 14 (78%) n.s.
Age (years) 52 (42–61) 52 (41–59) 59 (46–66) n.s.
OHCA 85 (67,5%) 77 (71%) 8 (44%) < 0,05
EMS first rhythm (shockable) 64 (51%) 53 (49%) 11 (61%) n.s.
Rhythm on admission (shockable) 32 (25%) 24 (22%) 8 (44%) < 0,05
Epinephrine (mg; total amount) 7 (4–10) 7 (4–11) 5 (1–7) < 0,05
Suspected cause of arrest
 Cardiac 76 (60%) 64 (59%) 12 (67%) n.s.
 Non-cardiac 50 (40%) 44 (41%) 6 (33%)
 APACHE (admission) 41 (38–46) 42 (38–47) 39 (37–43) n.s.
 Ventilator time (hours) 25 (6–86) 15 (6–59) 722 (242–1003) < 0.05
eCPR related time intervals
 Collapse to admission (min) 57 (45–67) 60 (46–70) 33 (13–53) < 0,05
 Collapse to eCPR (min) 89 (73–111) 90 (74–114) 58 (12–85) < 0,05
 ECPR duration (hours) 20.7 (5.1–63) 12 (5–44.1) 89 (49–153.7) < 0.05
Admission laboratory values
 pH 7.1 (6.9–7,2) 7 (6.9–7.2) 7.2 (7.15–7.4) <  0.05
 Lactate 137 (104–173) 143 (111–178) 95 (44–130) < 0,05
 Potassium 4.3 (3.7–5.1) 4.4 (3.8–5.2) 4 (3.5–4.5) < 0,05
 INR 1.8 (1.5–3.2) 2 (1.5–3.7) 1.5 (1.3–2.4) < 0,05
Blood and volume treatment during the 1st 24 h
 Red cell units 4 (2–10) 5.5 (2–12) 2.5 (0–4.5) < 0,05
 FFP (units) 5 (0–12) 6 (0–12) 4 (0–10.3) n.s.
 Volume first 24 h (liter) 5 (2.1–8) 5.3 (2.3–8.2) 2.9 (2.1–5.9) n.s.
Diagnostic procedures
 Coronary angiography 82 (65%) 69 (64%) 13 (72%) n.s.
 Relevant coronary stenosis 67 (53%) 56 (52%) 11 (61%) n.s.
 CT (full body scan) 63 (50%) 49 (45%) 14 (78%) < 0,05
  Normal result 23 (18%) 13 (12%) 10 (56%)  
  ICH 5 (4%) 4 (4%) 1 (6%)  
  Brain edema 21 (17%) 20 (19%) 1 (6%)  
  Pulmonary embolism 7 (6%) 6 (6%) 1 (6%)  
  Aortic dissection 3 (2%) 3 (3%) 0  
  1. Data are given as median (25–75% interquartile range) or absolute numbers
  2. OHCA out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, EMS emergency medical service, CA cardiac arrest, APACHE Acute Physiology And Chronic Health Evaluation, eCPR extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation, INR international normalized ratio, EK erythrocyte concentrate, FFP fresh frozen plasma, CT computer tomography, ICH intracranial hemorrhage